Lunell/Linnell Origins

Linnell or Lunel is name of ancient Norman extraction [1].  It’s hard to pinpoint the exact origin of the name.  Lunel is some form of a nickname and not location-based due to the lack of “de” prefix meaning "from" that was a standard in early Norman naming patterns.  There are three theories; (1) It’s a derivative of lupel, luuel, luvel that means “wolf cub” or son of the wolf in French Latin [2]. (2) It’s a derivative of “Iuvene or juvene” which means Jr. in Latin, the Anglicized term is now Young [3].  (3) A nickname referring to the moon or crescent, ie Lunel that was not in use in England until after the crusades [4].

The Lunel’s as they were spelled at the time, held their lands in Farthingstone and Kislingbury and took on roles of clergy, clerks, lawmen, and lawyers. The main concentration of the surname is located in western Northamptonshire, with records going back to 1189.  Walter Lunel a Knight (also spelled Luuel, Lovel, or Luvel) a possible returned crusader is recorded giving land in Kislingbury to the Priory of St Andrew in Northampton [5]. From various documents in the Cartulary of Daventry Priory [6] and the Knightly Charters [7] it is clear that this family was also connected to the Church in Everdon and the Priory of Daventry with possible kinship to the Thorpe family of Thrupp Grounds, Northamptonshire [8], the de Everdon family of Everdon, Northamptonshire and the Luvel family of Welton, Northamptonshire, and possibly the St Liz family in Daventry, Northamptonshire.  A few other early Norman families with possible kinship have names such as de Armeteres, de Capes, de Farthingstone, de Gatesden, Golafre, de Keynes, de Kislingbury and de Undele [9].

Walter Lunel was a Lord of Farthingstone and Kislingbury and owned land in Everdon and Snoscombe under-tenant in chief, Ralph de Keynes (Cahaignes) of Dodford.  In 1197 there was a grand assize of twelve knights between Water Lunel plaintiff and Richard de Farthingstone son of Ingelram defendant, for his rights to three parts of a knight’s fee for land in Farthingstone [10][1][12][13].  Another Walter named Walter the clerk of Snoscombe was either the same person as Walter Lunel Knight, a son or very close kinsman [7].  Snoscombe was a small hamlet with a water-mill called the Sherriff’s mill built by Hugh de Leicester and was only a short walking distance from Farthingstone on the way to Everdon.   This land seemed to be tied to the priests of Everdon with the said mill being its prized possession [6][9].  In 1234 Hugh Lunel held 2/3 of a fee in Farthingstone and 1/3 of a fee in Kislingbury and was under the wardship of his uncle Silvester de Everdon [14] chaplain to King Henry III, personal clerk, and later Lord Chancellor of England from 1244-1246, and Bishop of Carlisle at his death [15].  In a charter in London recorded in 1260, Hugh fitz Walter de Everdon received two messuages of land in Westminster as the heir of Silvester de Everdon the Bishop of Carlisle his uncle [16].  Silvester of Everdon died in 1254 from being thrown off his horse on the way to court from Northamptonshire and is buried in the Knights Templar Temple Church in London [17].
Silvester de Everdon carried the arms; sable a lion rampant argent and his motto was S. Te rogo Virgo Dei, Sis vigil ergo mei, “I beg of St. Mary, be vigilant on me” [18].  There are also records of other members of the de Everdon family in service to the crown as clerks, magistrates, and priests.  A possible brother or uncle to Silvester was Rannulph de Everdon magister and Patron who had a son Robert a who held a fee in Everdon in 1250 from the Abbot and Convent of Bernay [6][19].  This Robert or his son may have taken on the surname “Juvene” or Younger which became Young [6][9].  A different Robert de Everdon, Knight performed military service for the Abbot of Abingdon and a Philip de Everdon clerk, paymaster to the Armies in Gascony in 1295 was also clerk of the deanery of Wolverhampton.   Philip resigned from the deanery in 1303 and that position was taken over by John de Everdon the same year, who later became Baron of the Exchequer in 1307 and later became the Dean of St Paul’s in London.  William de Everdon, possibly John’s brother or nephew was the Treasurers's Remembrancer of the Exchequer.  A primary duty of the Exchequer is to keep records of the taxes paid and unpaid for the crown [15][19][20].

Hugh Lunel son of Walter de Everdon (Lunel) had two sons, Geoffrey Lunel de Kislingbury also called de Farthingstone [22][23], the eldest, and Alexander Lunel [24][25], both shown paying taxes in Farthingstone in 1301 [26].  Geoffrey’s heir Thomas de Kislingbury became a priest in the Lincoln diocese [23] and records show the family lands were eventually inherited by Alexander [27].  Alexander was named after his uncle Alexander fitz Walter of Snoscombe living in 1278, priest of Preston Capes [7][28].   Alexander’s son and heir Richard Lunel [29] was a Coroner of Northamptonshire as early as 1314 [30] and was asked to step down by the Sheriff of Northampton in February of 1332 because he was not sufficiently qualified for the position [31]. The medieval role of coroner provided a local county official whose primary duty was to service the Royal Courts of Law and protect the financial interest of the Crown in criminal proceedings. The most important task was the investigation of sudden deaths and taxing of the deceased lands for it held great potential for filling the Royal coffers [32].
Richard Lunel probably lost his position as coroner for an incident like what was recorded in 1327 where we did not assess taxes correctly on a death.  In this case, William le Broun a thief was decapitated while running from the law by Roger Aunsel.  Maud the widow of William le Broun falsely assessed her husband’s land for taxation and Richard Lunel has duped her.  Richard became “in Mercy” to the courts or liable to punishment at the discretion of the judge due to his failure assessing proper taxation and then hiding his failure. “Because William's wife Maud took the aforesaid chattels without warrant, she is in mercy. The townships of Wilby, Sywell, Barton, and Ashby assessed the aforesaid chattels falsely before the coroner, and are therefore in mercy. And Richard Luvel, the coroner, is in mercy for concealment in the assessment of the aforesaid chattels [33].

In 1329 there were two Manors in Farthingstone, Gatesden and Lunell Manor.  In 3 Edward III (1329) Richard son of William de Swineford of Newbold having failed in substantiating his claim, released and quit claimed to Richard Luvel and Emma his wife and their heirs, this manor in Farthingeston, which thus became united in ownership with the other Gatesden manor [34][35]."  Philip Lunel a lawyer the son of Richard fitz Alexander Luvel [36]Ricus fili Alxi Luvel [29].  In 20 Edward III (1346) Richard Luvell with Philip his son, in the aid collected for making the King’s son a Knight, accounted for one Knights fee in Farthingstone, as held of the fee of John de Keynes [37].  Philip Lunel married twice, first to Alice Blankfront and they had a son Richard the elder.  Philip married as his second wife Alicia de Sutton daughter of Sir John de Sutton of Dudley who held lands in Aston-de-walls Warwickshire [38].  Philip and Alicia had; Philip, Richard the younger, John, and Catherine.  A lost charter that ended up with the Shuckburgh estate is as follows “Philip Lunell, senior, great grandson of Hugh, made a feoffment in 33 Edw III (1359) of all his estates here and at Kislingbury as to the lands, rents, and services of his original patrimony in “Fardyngestone” and “Kyselynbury” to the use of himself and Alice his wife for life, remainder to Richard, senior, his son by Alice Blancfrount his former wife, Philip, Richard jr., John and Katherine his children by Alice his then wife, successively in fee tail; and as to his lands, rents, and services in “Fardyngestone” formerly belonging to Sir Richard de Bray, late rector of Woodford, to himself and Alice his wife for life, remainder to Philip and their other children successively in fee tail [39]”. All male heirs supposedly were dead by 1406 but there is no specific record of that other than Catharine the daughter, became heir.   Catherine Lunel, the heiress of her father’s lands married three times, and her second marriage to Henry de Sydenhale produced a male heir, Thomas who became the Lord of both Farthingstone and Kislingbury [36].  Thomas’ grand-daughter Joanna was the co-heir of the lands in 1460 and married Thomas Shuckburgh from Little Shuckburgh, Warwickshire and the lands passed to this ancient family [27].   
In 1402 there was a Thomas Lynel and his wife Agnes owning 24 acres of land in Sewell, just south-west of Maidford, Northamptonshire [40].  In 1405 Hugh and William Lunel, sons of John were quitclaimed ½ acre of land in Sewell that was granted by Richard Kynne Lord of Maidford, Northamptonshire [41].  There is a strong connection with the Lunel family of Farthingstone and Lynel family of Sewell only two miles south.  Richard Luvel the elder was a creditor in a suit against Thomas de Baa lord of Sewell for £12 [42] and Philip Lunel his father was the attorney for the same aforesaid Thomas de Baa Lord of Sewell in 1357 [43].   In 1390 there is a record of Richard Luvel chaplain of Maidford, Northamptonshire getting a license to travel to Rome with John Keld [44].   The de Brunnesle family also owned land in Sewell and they have strong ties to Catherine Lunel [9].  Giles de Brunnesle was the first husband of Catherine daughter of Philip Lunel and Giles’ sister Nichola sued Catherine and her second husband Henry de Sydenhale for murdering Giles about 1380 [45].  In 1421 there is a grant to Agnes Lenyll, widow and William her son and his wife Agnes for land in Maidford, Hugh Lenyll is a witness [106]. There is also mention of a Juliana widow of William Lynell of Maidford who held lands in Whittlebury, Northamptonshire in 1460 [107].

The case of Nichola de Brunnesle and the Sydenhale’s is quite the tale.  About 1380 Request for a writ or letters under the privy seal requiring the petitioner's opponents in the dispute over the property at Farthingstone to appear before the council.  Instructions for orders to the offenders to appear before the council at the quindene of Michaelmas next Plaintiff Nichola Brunnesle, Giles de Brunnesle, brother of the petitioner vs. defendants Henry Sydenhale and Katherine wife of Henry Sydenhale.  Witnesses Henry Beek, parson of Farthingstone; Ralph de Kislingbury; John, son of Ralph Kislingbury; Roger Fang; Thomas Tewe [45]”.  March 12th 1380, Westminster, Appointment of Thomas de Preston, Warin Lucien, William de Burgh. John Carvel, Roger Perwych and Robert Isham, to enquire who killed Giles Brunesleye at Farthingstone, Co. Northampton, and who harbored the murderers also who conspired to have Nichola Brunesley, his sister, indicted of certain trespasses, seized and imprisoned in Northampton castle until she was acquitted before Thomas de Ingelby and the other justices of gaol delivery, who ejected her from her tenement in, Farthingstone  threatened her life, took away her horse, value 20s., broke her chest, and carried off charters and other writings therein [46]”.  In about 1385 “Nicola de Brunnesle recounts that after her brother Giles was murdered in Northamptonshire by Sydenhale and his wife Katherine, who was then Giles's wife, Beek, fitz Raaf, Fang, Cewe and others, and the petitioner brought a suit against them for this murder, they conspired to indict her so that she was taken and imprisoned and later acquitted. They then pursued her in foreign counties until she was outlawed; this outlawry has since been reversed.  They also disseized her of her land in Farthingstone by force so that she did not dare to enter or bring suit against them for fear of death. Now they have also put her in exigent. The petitioner requests that the evildoers be ordered to appear before the council to answer for their actions, and that she may have remedy [45].”

Catherine was married a third time to John Yate and in May of 1407, she sold part of her estate.  "John Yate of Farthingstone and Katherine have acknowledged the manors and tenements to be the right of John Cok, as those which the same John, John Harwedon and John Saundres have of their gift, and have remised and quitclaimed them from themselves and the heirs of Katherine to John Harwedon, John Cok, and John Saundres and the heirs of John Cok forever.  Agreement for the manors of Overcourt and Nethercourt in Farthingstone and 6 messuages, 100 acres of land and 20 acres of meadow in Kislingbury for 200 marks of silver [47]".   An outline of the Lunel family tree and the transfer of land are clearly defined in a 1492 lawsuit between Alice Warren and Thomas Shuckburgh son of Joanna Shuckburgh sue Thomas Shuckburgh of Shuckburgh for the Manors of Nethercourt and Kislingbury and Land in Farthingstone that which Henry Bray and Alexander Lunell gave to Philip Lunell which passed on to his heir Catherine Lunell [27].  The Lunel arms az. a fess ar. between three crescents or. [48] are displayed in various Churches in Warwickshire from the marriage of Thomas and Joanna.  The arms are displayed in Church windows in Clifton [49], Cubbington [50], Napton [51], and Upper Shuckburgh [52], Warwickshire.  The arms also adorn the family quarterings of Ashby [53] and Fulwood [54].  A few pedigrees of the Lunell family have been created with minor errors and all seem to be copied from George Bakers History of Northampton[9][55][56][57][58][59].

In Easter term of 1416, there was a case involving Robert Aldewyncle plaintiff vs. William Lynell of Brockhall defendant for assault and trespass in Northamptonshire [60].  The will of Elena Linnell of Hanslope, Buckinghamshire proved in 1494, mentions her already deceased husband William Linnell and her son William a Baker who was still living [61].  William the Baker son of William died in 1533 in Hanslope and was Married to Elizabeth Knight.  William also had two sisters Elizabeth and Alice [62][63].  In a series of feoffments and bonds found in the British National Archives; William the Baker son of William and his mother Helen (Elena) acquired land from the Rector of Brockhall, Northamptonshire 1481-1501.  William the Baker later sold this land to Robert and Thomas Smith of Brockhall [64][65][66][67][68].   In 1466 a John Linnell is recorded in a feoffment in Brockhall with the aforementioned Thomas Smith and John Smith landowners [69].   William the father was probably a William Lynnell de Whilton, mentioned in 1458, Whilton is 1.8 miles north of Brockhall.  John Lynnell of Brockhall was mentioned in 1443 and 1461 about the land on the highway to Whilton and was probably a brother or father to William [70][71].  A John Lynell was also involved as a plaintiff in a debt dispute with Robert Haldenby and Thomas Hert against Thomas Nayleston of Long Buckby, Northamptonshire Yeoman in 1448 [72].   Thomas and Mathew Lynnel are also mentioned in 1505 both Husbandmen of Whilton [74].  In the 16th century, there are also few Lynnell wills in Whilton.  John who died about 1546 [74], Richard who died about 1559 and mentions his sons James and Henry [75], James who died about 1565 [76], and Thomas who died about 1602 mentions sons, William, Adam and others [77], and Roger Lynell who died about 1610 and had a son Thomas and a Witness Richard [78], and Roger who died in 1653 who had a sons Roger, William, and Thomas, a daughter Elizabeth and a Thomas Lynell the elder as a witness [108].

In the book, Northamptonshire and Rutland Clergy it states “Thomas Lynell of Weedon Bec, Northamptonshire bequeathed to “John Lynell of Cambridge the son of Robert Lynell to pray for me and God fortune hym to be a preste to syng a trigentall for me” This testator named his brother Robert Robert Lynell as executor.  The John Linnell son of Robert previously mentioned was a priest born about 1503 who at 17 years of age went to King’s College of Cambridge, received his BA in 1523 and received his MA in 1528 from Eton College.  John Lynell became the parish priest of Bugbrooke, Northamptonshire in 1531, Vicar of Easton Neston, Northamptonshire in 1537, and Rector of Tiffield, Northamptonshire in 1545, John died in May of 1575 in Tiffield.  John was a witness to wills of T. Howse of Tiffield Sept 12th 1540, his brother Edmund Lynnel of Weedon Sept 18th 1551, and his nephew Robert Lynell of Weedon Jan 7th 1556 who left him a cow.  Edmund Linnell the brother of John the priest had a will proved Dec 12th, 1551.  Edmund mentions his wife Joan, his sons Edward, Richard, Robert and daughter Agnes, his grandson Richard son of John, three un-named grandchildren of Robert, and finally his brother John the “parson” of Tiffield who was witness and supervisor to the will.   Edmund also mentions his apprentice John Hansworth[79][80][81][82].   In the tax records of the Hundred of Fawesley dated 15 Henry VIII (1525) It shows “Robert Lynell and Edumnd his sonne” owning land in Nether Weedon (Weedon Bec) [83]. Edmund Linnell, yeoman from Everdon Magna was also pardoned post death in a court case involving an assault in Priors Marsten, Warwickshire Feb 14th 1572 [84].

Robert Linnell, Edmund’s son was instructed by father to care for his grandfather Robert who was still living in 1551.  Robert the son of Edmund, had his will proved on March 11th 1558 and mentions his wife Joan, son Edward who received his lands in Floore, brothers Richard, and Uncle John Parson of Tiffield.  Robert also mentions a servant named William and an apprentice named Robert Smythe [85].  On February 3rd 1621 another Edmund Linnell proved his will in Weedon Bec.  The will mentions his wife Edith and son Robert who was the executor of the estate.  One could easily assume that Edmund is one of the unnamed sons of Robert Linnell who died in 1556 [86].  Edmund’s son Robert was a tanner by trade and was married to Alice Smith in 1603, an heir to lands owned by John smith son of Henry.  These lands were located in Brockhall, Norton, Muscot, and Whilton Northamptonshire which made them quite wealthy [87].  This Robert, "Robert Lynnell of Weedon Beck, co. Northampton, tanner) was involved in a court case in Whitechapel, London where Lawrence Wade of Whitechapel and William Raye were charged with stealing a white gelding and a grey nag, each worth £4, belonging to Robert Lynnell and Martin Billinge both from Weedon Bec, on 2 January, 1617–18" [88]. Robert the son of Edmund died in 1624 [89]. 
During this tumultuous time in English history after the Wars of the Roses and plagues, the Linnell’s were transitioning from a yeomen landowning class to the trades.  The previously mentioned Robert Linnell in Weedon Bec was a tanner (leather maker) and traveled to London.  There was a family of Linnell’s in Paulersbury, Northamptonshire.  In the later 1600s there is another will of Edward Linnell, lace buyer of Paulersbury who had his will proved June 16th 1669 by his wife Embert.  Edward had a son Thomas and another kinsman, Edward who was also a lacebuyer that lived in Aston, Northamptonshire.  Witnesses include John Sharpe, Elizabeth Sharpe the elder, and Thomas Sharpe [90].  

Towcester and Paulserbuty are only three miles apart.   A Henry Lynnell of Paulersbury was mentioned 1524 and 1536 he died in 1567, his will mentions son Thomas and daughter Elizabeth [91].  In the London Livery Rolls, we have a (1) John Lynell son of Thomas of Paulersury, Northamptonshire apprenticing to Thomas Gattonby a clothworker in 1541 [92].  (2) William Linnell son of William a Carpenter from Paulersbury, Northamptonshire apprenticing to Richard Davies a Fustitan Dresser (men's clothing) from Basinghall Street, London in 1626[93].  (3) Thomas Linnell son of Nicholas from Wooton, Northamptonshire apprenticing to Richard Williams a clothworker in 1633 [94].  The will of Thomas Langford of Paulersbury, Northamptonshire in 1619 mentions, “To my cousin Thomas Lynnell of Paulerspury, blacksmith, son of Thomas Lynnell of the said parish, carpenter, £6.13.8 etc. ,To my cousin William Lynnell of Paulerspury, plowwright & son of the foresaid Thomas Lynnell, carpenter, £6.13.8 To my cousin John Lynnell, of Paulerspury, weaver, & son of the foresaid Thomas Lynnell, carpenter, £3 etc. To my cousin Marie Lynnell daughter of the foresaid Thomas £10[95].   There was a James Clarke of Whilton who drew up probate in 1557 but it was not granted until the same day as Thomas Langord’s will on Sept 25th 1619. The will mentions Richard Lynnell and Thomas Lynnell as witnesses and the same aforesaid Lynnell beneficiaries and £ amount as Thomas Langford’s will [93].  You can see that various members of the family starting to learn new trades in Northamptonshire and some even venturing off to London for apprenticeship. 

In London in about 1533, a certain John Lynnett was paid 32d for printing a “book” for the church of St Andrew Hubbard, in early records the “ll” looked like “tt” [97].  In the Transcripts of the Company of Stationers, Richarde Lynnell a free journeyman printer is recorded having three apprentices from 1561 to 1566, all from Northamptonshire. (1) Thomas Breade son of John of Hulcote, Northamptonshire [98]. (2) Tymothe Ryder son of John of Weedon Bec, Northamptonshire [99]. (3) Henry Sharpe son of Rycharde of Towcester, Northamptonshire [100].  This Richard was supposedly also mistranslated as Rychard Kenell iuniori and Rycharde Leunell according to Peter W. M. Blayney who retranslated the Stationers Company records [101][103].  This Rycharde Lynnell Jun might have had a son or grandson named Thomas that is Listed as a stationer in 1633.  A Thomas Lynnell of London became a freeman Stationer in London and apprenticed a John Rawlins in 1533 [103].
The Worshipful Company of Stationers 
    Henry Sharpe whom apprenticed to Rycharde Linnell until 1570 was part of the Martin Marprelate scandal involving the printing of heretical protestant tracts.  Humphrey Newman a Cobbler in London was distributing the tracts while Henry Sharpe was the bookbinder.  Henry was arrested for assisting in printing the tracts and threatened with torture and a traitors execution and named John Penry as a collaborator.  John Penry was later executed by hanging May 21st 1593. Two noble gentleman were also involved with the tracts, Job Throckmorton from Hasely, Warwickshire and Sir Richard Knightly of Norton, Northamptonshire who also owned the lands in Snoscombe, Northamptonshire [104][105].  One possible connection of Henry Sharpe from Towcester, Northamptonshire is the previously mentioned will of Edward Linnell, Lacebuyer of Paulersbury than mentions “John Sharpe, Elizabeth Sharpe the elder, and Thomas Sharpe”, Towcester and Paulersbury are only three miles apart [90]. 

[1]The Norman people and their existing descendants in the British dominions and the United States of America (H.S. King & co., London 1874) Pg. 312, Pg. 316
[2]Mark Antony Lower, English Surnames. Essays on Family Nomenclature (etc.)(Russel Smith, SOHO, 1842) Pgs. 100-101
[3]George William Lemon, English Etymology: Or, a Derivative Dictionary of the English Language (G. Robinson, Norfolk, 1783) Reference for Junior
[4]Leonard Wilson, The National Magazine: An Illustrated Monthly, Volume 45 (Bostonian Publishing Company, Boston, 1917) Pg. 756
[5]William Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum Vol 5 (James Bohn, London 1846) pg. 191
[6]M.J. Franklin,The Cartulary of Daventry Priory (The Publications of the Northamptonshire Record Society, Northampton, 1987) Various Charters 360 pgs
[7]The Knightley Charters, Northamptonshire Archives, K(C)010, K(C)019, K(C)025
[8]Calendar of the Charter Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office: Henry III. 1226-1257 (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1908) Pg. 295
[9]George Baker, The History & Antiquities of the County of Northampton (John Bowyer Nichols, London 1822-1830) Various Pedigrees and Village History Vol. 1 Vol. 2
[10]Placitorum in Domo Capitulari Westmonasteriensi Asservatorum Abbrevatio.(H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1811) pg. 6, pg. 21
[11]The Great Rolls of The Exchequer prior to 1200 The Publications of the Pipe Roll Society Vol. XXXI (1910) Pg. 134
[12]The Great Rolls of The Exchequer prior to 1200 The Publications of the Pipe Roll Society Vol. XXXII (1911) Pgs. 122,123
[13]The Great Rolls of The Exchequer prior to 1200 The Publications of the Pipe Roll Society Vol. XXXIV (1913) Pgs. 48,49
[14]Testa de Nevill: Sive, Liber Feodorum in Curia Scaccarii, Temp. Hen. III & Edw. I. (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1817) Pg. 24, Pg. 27
[15]Edward Foss, Biographia Juridica. A Biographical Dictionary of the Judges of England, from the Conquest to the Present Time 1066-1870 (John Murray, London, 1870) Pgs. 242-243
[16]A Calendar to the Feet of Fines for London & Middlesex (William John Hardy, William Page,  London, 1892) Pg. 41
[17]Charles G. Addison, The History of the Knights Templars, The Temple Church, And The Temple (Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, London 1842) Pg. 307
[18]Riland Bedford, The Blazon of Episcopacy: Being the Arms Borne by Or Attributed to the Archbishops and Bishops of England and Wales with an Ordinary of the Coats Described and of Other Episcopal Arms (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1897)  Pg. 142
[19]Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy, Rotuli litterarum clausarum in Turri londinensi asservati: 1204-1224 (G. Eyre and A. Spottiswoode, London, 1833) Pg. 631
[20]The Parliament Writs and Writs of Military Summons (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1827) Pg. 588
[21]Calendar of the Patent Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office, Edward I, Vol IV. A.D. 1301-1307 (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1898)  Pg. 149
[22]Peter R. Coss, The Langley Cartulary (The Dugdale Society Vol. 32 (1980) Pg. 28
[23]Nicholas Hamilton Bennett, (The Beneficed Clergy In The Diocese Of Lincoln During The Episcopate Of Henry Burgheresh, 1320-1340 Vol 2. Pg. 113,Pg. 116
[24]British National Archives, Berkeley Castle Muniments,  BCM/B/2/3/1
[25]Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, Volumes 46-47- No. 7 Calendar of Patent Rolls: 6 Edward I. (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1886) Pg. 348
[26]Stephen Swailes, Northamptonshire Tax Assessment, 1301: Fawsley Hundred, Villata de Fardingeston (Farthingstone) Link of Tax Roll
[27]H.W. Forsyth Harwood, The Genealogist New Series, Volume 24- Pedigrees from The De Banco Rolls, temp, Henry VIII by H.J.T.  Wood (George Bell & Sons, Exeter, 1908) Pg. 108
[28]Rotuli Ricardi Gravesend Episcopi Lincoliensis A.D. MCCLVIII-MCCLXXIX (Lincoln Record Society Vol 20, 1925) Pg. 136
[29]Nonarum Inquisitiones in Curia Scaccarii. Temp. Regis Edwardi 3.(H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1807) Pg. 27  “Ricus fili Alxi Anvel” should be “Ricus fili Alxi Luvel”
[30]Calendar of the Close Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office, Edward II A.D. 1313-1318, (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1893) Pg. 56
[31]Calendar of the Close Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office, Edward III A.D. 1330-1333, (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1898) Pg. 436
[32]Prof. Bernard Knight, CBE, CROWNER: Origins of the Office of Coroner,
[33]Donald W. Sutherland , The Eyre of Northamptonshire: 3-4 Edward III, A.D. 1329-1330 (Selden Society Vol 97, 1983) Pg. 172
[34]British National Archives Manorial Records Lunell - GB/NNAF/M299996  - Farthingstone
[35]Shuckburgh Evidences from Ex Bibl. Georgii Baker, Armig. Historici pro Com. Northampt. copied by George Baker in BHNH, Pg. 371 BHNH Farthingstone
[36]Inquisitions and Assessments Relating to Feudal Aids, with Other Analogous Documents Preserved in the Public Record Office; A.D. 1284-1431: Northampton to Somerset, (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1906) Pg. 34 , Pg. 38  “Ricadi Lovell et Philippi, filii ejus”
[37]Comp. Ex Bibl Georgii Baker, Armig. Historici pro Com. Northampt. 11966 Computus Walteri Parles Pg. 208 Collection was sold but info is written in John Bridges, Esq., The History And Antiquities of Northamptonshire, Vol. 1 (T. Payne, London, 1791) Pg. 62
[38]Inquisitions Post Mortem, Edward III Vol. 40 (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1821) pg.403 & Inquisition 516 BHO Website
[39]Shuckburgh Evidences from Ex Bibl. Georgii Baker, Armig. Historici pro Com. Northampt. Copied by George Baker in BHNH, Pg. 371 BHNH Farthingstone
[40] Abstracts of Feet of Fines CP 25/1/179/90 No. 24
[41]Northamptonshire Archives Small Collections fonds, XYZ/241 24 June 1405
[42]British National Archives, Chancery Records, C 241/124/12
[43]Calendar of the Patent Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office, Edward III, Vol X A.D. 1354-1358 (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1909) Pg. 623
[44]Calendar of the Patent Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office: Richard II. Vol IV A.D. 1377-1399, (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1902) Pg. 183
[45]British National Archives, Petitions to the King, SC 8/212/10591 , SC 8/215/10727
[46]Calendar of the Patent Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office: Richard II A.D. 1377-1381 (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1895) Pg. 470
[47] Abstracts of Feet of Fines CP 25/1/179/91 No. 61
[48]Thomas Robson, The British herald, or Cabinet of armorial bearings of the nobility & gentry of Great Britain & Ireland (Turner & Marwood, Sunderland, 1830) LUN - LUP
[49]Royal Collection Trust Online, Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-77) Clifton (Shuckburgh family) RCIN 804871
[50]Royal Collection Trust Online, Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-77) Cubington (Shuckburgh family) RCIN 804876
[51]Online Alamy, A stained glass window depicting Heraldic Glass, Parish Church of St Laurence, Napton, Warwickshire - Image ID: BY79RF
[52]Royal Collection Trust Online, Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-77) Tomb of Shuckburgh published 1656 RCIN 804731
[53]William George Dimock Fletcher, Leicestershire Pedigrees and Royal Descents, (Clarke & Hodgson, 1887) Ashby of Naseby Pg. 116
[54]John Fetherston, The Visitation of The County of Warwick in the Year 1619. Taken by William Camden, Clarenceaux king of arms (The Harleian Society Vol XII, London, 1877) Fullwood Pgs. 236-227 Shuckburgh Pgs. 344-345
[55]William,Harvey, The Visitations of Northamptonshire Made In 1564 and 1618-19, with Northamptonshire Pedigrees From Various Harleian MSS. (Mitchel & Hughes, London 1887) Shuckburgh of Little Harowden Pg. 135
[56]Joseph Tilley, The Old Halls, Manors And Families of Derbyshire Vol 1 (Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent and Company,  London, 1892- 1902) Fulwood Arms Pg. 245
[57]Sir Ricard Colt Hoare, The Modern History of South Wiltshire (John Bowyer Nichols, London, 1834) Vol III Downton Hundred pg. 54
[58]The Visitation of Shropshire, Taken in the Year 1623, Part 1 (The Harleian Society Vol XXVIII, London, 1889) Harington of Bishton Pg. 220-221
[59]Hamilton Adams, Miscellanea Genealogica Et Heraldica Vol. III Second Series (Mitchell & Hughes, London, 1890) Pgs. 317-318 and others of Shuckburgh family
[60]AALT website, Court of Common Pleas, CP40/621: Easter Term 1416, Sorted by Plaintiff (By Vance Mead) f764 Nhants
[61]E.M. Elvey, The Courts of the Archdeaconry of Buckingham 1483-1523 (The Buckinghamshire Record Society Vol. 19, 1975) Will of Eleyna Linnell Pg. 266
[62]Centre for Buckinghamshire Studies,  reference probate copy: Will of William Lynnell of Hanslope , D/A/We/3/30
[63]Centre for Buckinghamshire Studies,  reference  probate copy: Will of John Knyght D/A/We/3/5
[64]British National Archives, Feoffment, Northamptonshire Archives, Th 1273
[65]British National Archives, Feoffment, Northamptonshire Archives Th 1274
[66]British National Archives, Bond, Northamptonshire Archives, Th 1275
[67]British National Archives, Quitclaim, Northamptonshire Archives, Th 1276
[68]British National Archives, Charter, Northamptonshire Archives, Th 1264
[69]British National Archives, Charter, Northamptonshire Archives, Th 1208
[70]Calendar of the Fine Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office: Henry VI A.D. 1437-1445 (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1937)  Pg. 220
[71]British National Archives, Charter, Northamptonshire Archives, Th 1245
[72]AALT website, Court of Common Pleas, CP40no971, Sorted by County (By Vance Mead) f5
[73]AALT website, Court of Common Pleas, CP40/748: Hilary Term 1448; Sorted by Plaintiff (By Vance Mead) f130 , f605
[74]Northamptonshire Wills, Book I, Will of John Lynnyll of Welton (Whilton), Pg. 229
[75]Northamptonshire Wills, Book Q, Will of Richard Lynnell of Whilton, Pg. 9
[76]Northamptonshire Wills, Book P, Will of James Lynnel of Whilton, Pg. 43
[77]Northamptonshire Wills Book W, Will of Thomas Lynnel of Whilton, Pg. 238
[78]Northamptonshire Wills, Book X, Will of Roger Lynnell of Whilton, Pg. 101
[79]Henry Isham Longden, John Hotine, Patrick Irvine King, Northamptonshire And Rutland Clergy from 1500 Vol VII  (Archer & Goodman, 1940) Pg. 271
[80]Northamptonshire Wills, Book I, Will of Edmond Linnell of Weedon Bec, Pg. 320
[81]Scanned Will of John Lynnell Rector of Tiffield, Northamptonshire Unsourced Vol.
[82]Northamptonshire Wills, Book S, Will of Richard Lynnell of Tiffield, Pg. 85
[83]Northamptonshire Tax Assessment, 15 Henry VIII: Fawsley Hundred, (1524; E 179/155/122) “Lynell Robert & Edmund his sonne”
[84]Calendar of the Patent Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office: Elizabeth I: Vol. VI 1572-1575. (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1973) Pg. 91
[85]Northamptonshire Wills, Book N, Will of Robert Lynnell of Weedon Bec, Pg. 312
[86]Northamptonshire Wills, Book M, Will of Edmund Lennell of Weedon Bec, Pg. 164
[87]British National Archives, Bond, Northamptonshire Archives, Th 1308
[88]Sessions of the Peace and Gaol Delivery, on 14 and 15 January, 15 James I A.D. 1617–18. (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1942), Sess. Roll 562/69, 71–6, 157–61. P.R.B. 1/119.  G.D.R. 2/136d, 137, 138d.
[89]Northamptonshire Wills, Book AV, Will of Robert Lennel of Weedon Bec pg.  156
[90]Northamptonshire Wills, Book NAW Series 4, Edward Lynnell of Paulersbury Pg. 68
[91]Consistory of Peterborough, Northampton Will of Henry Lynnell of Paulersbury, Vol 3 Pg. 173
[92]London Livery Rolls, Records of London's Livery Companies Online Apprentices and Freemen 1400-1900 Clothworkers Company, Johes Lynell
[93]London Livery Rolls, Records of London's Livery Companies Online Apprentices and Freemen 1400-1900 Clothworkers Company, Thomas Linel
[94]London Livery Rolls, Records of London's Livery Companies Online Apprentices and Freemen 1400-1900 Clothworkers Company, Willmus Linnell
[95]Northamptonshire Wills, Book P, Will of Thomas Langford of Paulerspury, Pg. 95
[96]Northamptonshire Wills, Book M Will of James Clarke of Whilton Pg. 231
[97]Clive Burgess, The Church Records of St Andrew Hubbard, Eastcheap, c1450-c1570 (London Record Society Vol. XXXIV, 1999) Pg. 134
[98]Edward Arber, A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London, 1554-1640, A.D Vol. 1 (Private, London, 1878) Pg. 82
[99]Edward Arber, A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London, 1554-1640, A.D Vol. 1 (Private, London, 1878) Pg. 109 b
[100]Edward Arber, A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London, 1554-1640, A.D Vol. 1 (Private, London, 1878) Pg. 130 b
[101]Edward Arber, A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London, 1554-1640, A.D Vol. 1 (Private, London, 1878) Pg. 1 b “Rycharde leulle is a mistake for Rycharde Kevell jr. of the charter” & Introduction “Richard, Ricardo, Ricardum Kevell the younger or junior”
[102]Peter W. M. Blayney, The Stationers' Company and the Printers of London, 1501–1557 () Pgs. Foreward, 882,889,892 From Foreword “I have emended only four of the names. The first r in the surname of Randall Tyrer, omitted in the second list, is attested in other records, and the names of Henry ‘Suttell” (Sutton), Thomas ‘Beyden’ (Boyden), and Richard ‘Kebell Iuniori’ (Lynnell) are noted or discussed in Chapter 11 (pp. 882,889,892)
[103]Edward Arber, A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London, 1554-1640, A.D Vol. III – Text  (Private, London, 1876) Pg. 321
[104]Charles Henry Timperley, A Dictionary of Printers and Printing: With the Progress of Literature; Ancient and Modern (H. Johnson, London, 1839) Pgs. 398-399
[105]Edward Arber, The English Scholar's Library of Old and Modern Works, Issues 7-10 (Edward Arber, 1879) Pg. 94
[106]British National Archives, Grant,  Leicestershire, Leicester and Rutland, Record Office, DG11/149
[107]N. Denholm-Young, Cartulary of the Mediaeval Archives of Christ Church (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1931) Pg. 244
[108]England & Wales, Prerogative Court of Canterbury Wills, 1384-1858, PROB 11: Will Registers 1644-1654 Piece 236: Alchin, Quire Numbers 152-201 (1654) Will of Roger Lynnell of Whilton, Pg. 365 (Need Ancestry Subscription)


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