Robert Linnell

View of Billingsgate Ward and St. Andrew Hubbard in 1682

Robert Linnell (Lynnell)

On  Dec. 7th, 1623 Susan Lynnell, was baptized at St Andrew Hubbard Eastcheape in Billingsgate Ward mentioning parents "Deacon" Robert Lynell and his previously unknown first wife Susan.  This new information was mentioned in a tract published by John Bellamie in 1646.[1]  

At the time Anglican deacons were permitted to marry before or after ordination, as were Anglican priests.  Most deacons were "transitional", that is, preparing for the priesthood and they were usually ordained priests about a year after their diaconal ordination. There were some deacons who did not go on to receive priestly ordination and were called "permanent deacons".   After the successful conclusion of their training, the ordained is made deacon to serve in a specific parish, usually for a three-year appointment.  Deacons cannot, in fact, be made deacon without the promise of a post in a parish, and to serve title there.  After a year of such service, during which a Deacon goes through post-ordination training, they will become an ordained priest and will continue in the same parish until their period of contract is completed or extended.  In their first year as Deacon, the curate (1st year Deacon) is not authorized to preside at a service of Holy Communion.[2][3]  It would be be safe to assume that Deacon Robert Lynell was likely college-educated due to the rigorous education needed and would be bestowed the title "Mr." which woud indicate he had a masters in divinity.

Susan Lynnell's baptism is the only concrete record we have of  Robert Lynell living in London before his association with the Howse and Lothropp families.  The great fire of London in 1666 destroyed the Church of St. Andrew Hubbard along with some of its records.  Finding records from this period in London are scarce.[4]

Robert Lynell was Deacon at St. Andrew Hubbard during the time John Randall was rector.  John Randall was a staunch Calvinist puritan and was known for his moving sermons [5].   John died June of 1622 and was buried at St Andrew Hubbard and was followed by Rectors: Richard Chambers, Nathanial Ranew, then William Holbrooke in 1628.[6]   St. Andrew Hubbard was a hot-bed of reformative church thought and in 1624 when Congregationalist Henry Jacob returned from Virginia, he shortly died and was buried there [7] and it is said that Jacob’s church merged into the 1621 church of Hubbard, at some date soon after 1632.[8]

Old London Bridge - 1632 by Claude de Jongh

The association with John Randall and possibly Henry Jacob, while Robert was a deacon, could be the start of Robert’s transformation away from the Church of England  At this time Robert met John Lothropp who took over Henry Jacob’s Church in London in mid-1624.[9]   In 1625 Charles I became King and tolerance for independent Churches quickly came to an end.   By 1634, Robert is recorded being a member of John Lothropp’s Southwark congregation in London.  At last there being no hopes yt Mr Lathorp should do them further Service in ye Church" he having many motives to go to new England if it might be granted After the Death of his Wife he earnestly desiring ye Church would release him of yt office wch (to his grief) he could no way performe, & that he might have their consent to goe to new England, after; serious consideration had about it it was freely granted to him. Then Petition being made that he might have Liberty to depart out of ye Land he was released from Prison 1634, about ye 4th Month called June,  & about 30 of the members who desired leave & permission from ye Congregation to go along with him, had it granted to them, namely, Mr Jo: Lathorp, Sam. House, John Wodwin, Goodwife Woodwin, Elder & Younger, Widd: Norton, & afterwards Robt Linel & his Wife, Mr & Mrs Laberton, Mrs Hamond, Mrs Swinerton.” [8][10]

Robert’s first wife Susan died about 1636 and he re-married about 1637-8, Pennina Howse, which made him the brother in-law of John Lothropp.  Pennina was at one time a maid and was arrested for being part of an illegal assembly of John Lothropp’s congregation in Blackfriars London with her brother Samuell Howse in 1632. [10]   Some of Pennina and Samuel’s testimony is as follows "Samuel Howes!" saith the KINGS ADVOCATE, "you are required by your oath to answere to the articles."  Howe "I have served the King both by sea and by land , and I had been at sea if this restraint had not been made upon me. My conversacon I thank God none can tax." REGISTER. "Will you take your oath?" Howe. " I am a young man and doe not know what the oath is." KINGS ADVOCATE. "The King desires your service in obeying his lawes." 'Then P(enuinnh) Howes was called and required to take her oath, but she refused. LONDON. "Will you trust Mr. Latropp and believe him rather than the Church of England?" Pennina. "I referre myself to the Word of God, whether I maie take this oath or noe."[35]
Pennina Howse the sister of Hannah House,  had multiple connections with John Lothrop’s congregation and the Printers and Stationers Company of London.  Hannah Howse’s first husband, Benjamin Allen was apprenticed to, printer John Bellamie.  Bellamie was a member of the congregation founded by the previously mentioned Henry Jacob [11] and printed the tract that mentioned Robert Linnell’s (Lynnell) first wife Susan in 1623. [8][10]

A breif summary of Benjamin Allen is as follows “Benjamin Allen published two pamphlets by Praise Barbone, whose wife was a member of Lothrop’s congregation. When the congregation previously led by Lothrop split in 1640, half of the congregation followed Praise Barbone, while the other half followed Henry Jessey. After Benjamin’s death, both Hannah and her second husband, Livewell Chapman, published works by Jessey. Hannah’s family also published materials by Samuel Highland, and John Goodwin. Both of Hannah’s husbands had run-ins with the law. Benjamin appeared in High Commission court records three times in 1634 and 1635. In February 1637/8, the English ambassador to Holland sent instructions asking local officials in Leiden to arrest Benjamin, who had “lately fledd out of England.” Seven years later, Parliament declared a book published by Benjamin to be heretical and ordered it to be burned by the hangman. Benjamin died the following year, and Hannah ran the publishing business from his death until her remarriage in 1651. Hannah freed her apprentice, Livewell Chapman, from his apprenticeship in 1650 and married him by September 1651. During the five years that Hannah ran the business, she published at least fifty-four books and pamphlets and extended the business in a radical direction.  Hannah lived in the area of St. Stephen Coleman Street, London[10]

Praise Barbone

The Howse Family

John Howse was a Curate at Edgerton, Kent 1592-1599, Rector, Eastwell, Kent 1603-1630.  John’s Patron in 1603 was Puritan supporter, Baronet Sir Moyle Finch of Eastwell, Kent.  Moyle’s brother, Henry Finch (1558-1625), of Whitefriars, Canterbury, later of Boxley, Kent [12] was the chief puritan spokesman after the suppression of Wentwort, Finch had also studied at Christ's College, Cambridge, under Laurence Chaderton. 

John died in Eastwell and all of his children were also born in Kent.  Unfortunately, his ancestry is unknown and some speculate he was related to the Hulse family of Cheshire and Kent.  John was possibly a brother of Walter Howse, B.A. Christ's College Cambridge, Vicar of St Andrew's, Cambridge, and Rector of Little Bytham, Lincolnshire and of West Deeping, Lincolnshire. [13]  There is also a Howse family in the area of Kislingbury, Rothersthorpe, and Tiffield, Northamptonshire area that were wealthy yeoman around 1500-1600.   

St. Mary's Church Eastwell, Kent

The Howse Family and their Connections to Robert
John Howse b. about 1565 d. Aug 30th 1630 Eastwell, Kent, England and his poss. unknown 1st wife had; [8][14][15]
1. Elizabeth b. abt. 1590 pos. Cambridge, England d. aft 1630 England.
2. Hannah b. May 5th Edgerton, Kent, England d. bef. Apr 1634 London, England
3. Penninah b. April 11th 1596 Edgerton, Kent, England d. aft. Oct. 1669 Barnstable, Plymouth Colony
John Howse and his second wife Alice
1. John b. Jun 19th 1603 Eastwell, Kent, England d. aft. Oct 18th 1643 Lenham, Kent, England
2. Pricilla b. Aug 25th 1605 Eastwell, Kent, England d. Nov 28th 1618 Eastwell, Kent, England
3. Thomas b. Aug 21st 1608 Eastwell, Kent, England d. Oct 15th London, England
4. Samuel b. June 10th 1610 Eastwell, Kent, England d. Sept 12th 1661 Barnstable, Plymouth Colony
5. Henry b. June 21st 1612 Eastwell, Kent, England d. aft. March 1631 London, England
6. Hannah b. abt. 1614 prob Eastwell, Kent, England d. Sept 30th London, England
7. Drucilla b. abt. 1616 Eastwell, Kent, England d. aft. Oct 1643 London, England.

Hannah Howse -  The 1652 will of Elizabeth (Checkett) (Howse) mentions “my sister Hanna Chapman” Hannah had multiple connections with John Lothrop’s congregation. Her first husband, Benjamin Allen was apprenticed to his master, John Bellamie, Bellamie was a member of the semi-separatist congregation founded by Henry Jacob.   Benjamin Allen published two pamphlets by Praise Barbone, whose wife was a member of Lothrop’s congregation. When the congregation previously led by Lothrop split in 1640, half of the congregation followed Praise Barbone, while the other half followed Henry Jessey. After Benjamin’s death, both Hannah and her second husband, Livewell Chapman, published works by Jessey. Hannah’s family also published materials by Samuel Highland, and John Goodwin. Both of Hannah’s husbands had run-ins with the law. Benjamin appeared in High Commission court records three times in 1634 and 1635. In February 1637/8, the English ambassador to Holland sent instructions asking local officials in Leiden to arrest Benjamin, who had “lately fledd out of England.” Seven years later, Parliament declared a book published by Benjamin to be heretical and ordered it to be burned by the hangman. Benjamin died the following year, and Hannah ran the publishing business from his death until her remarriage in 1651. Hannah freed her apprentice, Livewell Chapman, from his apprenticeship in 1650 and married him by September 1651. During the five years that Hannah ran the business, she published at least fifty-four books and pamphlets and extended the business in a radical direction.  Hannah lived in the area of St. Stephen Coleman Street, London[8].

Thomas Howse - “Thomas was living in London by 1623 at 14 when he was apprenticed to Garret Falcon of the Brown Bakers Company.  He was admitted a freeman by 1630 and bound his brother Henry Howse as an apprentice.  In 1640 Thomas became an apprentice clockmaker. Thomas and his family lived in the area of St. Stephen Coleman St. and was friends with religious non-conformists: John Goodwin, William Granger, Praise Barbone, and Samuel Highland.  Elizabeth appears to have fit very well with Thomas’s other family and friends. She remained friends with Thomas’ friend, Praise Barbone, throughout her life. In addition, like Thomas’s siblings and brother-in-law, both Elizabeth and her father were arrested by the Court of High Commission. “Elizabetha Chequett” first appeared in High Commission court records on 12 June 1634. Although there is no evidence that Elizabeth was a member of Lothrop’s congregation, three other cases involving members of Lothrop’s congregation were listed on the same day. One of these other cases involved Lothrop himself, who was ordered to be attached [arrested] if he did not appear on the next court day. On 19 June 1634, the High Commission ordered that “Elizabetham Checquell al[ia]s Howse” of All Saints parish be released from prison on bond. On the same date, Lothrop was ordered to be arrested because he had not appeared in court. Elizabeth next appeared in court records on 9 October 1634 as “Elizabetha Chequett al[ia]s Howse.” Another entry involving Lothrop’s congregation was listed on the same date: John Lothrop and Samuel Eaton were ordered to be arrested and committed. The last two times that Elizabeth’s name appeared on High Commission records, 16 October and 23 October 1634, she was simply listed as “Elizabetha Howse,” with no mention of her maiden name. By the last date, Elizabeth had taken the self-incriminatory ex- officio oath to answer the articles against her. “[8]

Thomas Howse left a will dated October 18th 1643, proved December 23rd 1644, mentioning wife Elizabeth (to be sole executrix); children Samuel and Elizabeth; brothers John and Samuel; sisters Pininna Lynnell and Drucilla Player. Overseers were to be brother-in-law Symon Player and Prayse Barbon. Elizabeth (the mother) left a will dated October 14th 1652, proved October 23rd 1652, mentioning children Samuel House, Elizabeth House, Robert Smith, Hanna Smith, and an unbaptized daughter not yet named [8].

Peninna Lynnel mentioned in her brother's will

Samuel Howse (House) - “Ship carpenter His brother in England “Thomas also bequeathed money to his two siblings who had moved to New England. Thomas left £20 to his brother Samuel Howse, £10 to his sister Peninnah Linnell, and fifty shillings to each of their children.”  Like William Granger and Sara Barbone (wife of Praise), both Samuel and Peninnah had been imprisoned when Lothrop’s congregation was raided by Richard Tomlins (alias Tomlinson), a pursuant, or heretic hunter, working for William Laud, who was then Bishop of London. Peninnah was identified as Penninah Howse, “a maid,” when she appeared before the Court of High Commission to be tried for attending a religious meeting in a private home. Sometime after her appearance in court, but evidently before moving to New England, she married Robert Linnell as his second wife.  Samuel came to Plymouth Colony in 1634 and was admitted to Scituate church 8 January 1634/5. On 20 July 1649, "Samuel Howse of Scituat shipwright" made a letter of attorney to "Tho[mas] Tarte of the same merchant ... to ask &c. of the executor &c. of the last will & testament of Thomas House late of Lond[on] watchmaker, all such legacies as due unto the children of the said appearer by virtue of the said last will" [8].

The Lothropp Family and their Connections to Robert

John Lothropp son of Thomas Lothropp of Cherry Burton and Etton, Yorkshire, was baptized December 20th 1584.  He matriculated as a commoner's son October 15th 1602 in the University of Oxford from Christ Church, where he was Vicar to Dr. John King, who became Dean of Christ Church in 1605.  Lothrop removed to Cambridge and took his B.A. from Queens College in 1607; ordained the same year and took his M.A. 1609. Deacon, Chaderton, Kent 1607, Curate, Benington, Lincolnshire 1607. Curate Little Chart and Edgerton, Kent 1610 [16].  

John married Hannah Howse Oct 10th 1610 probably in Eastwell, Kent.  Having been suspended from his office in Edgerton, John moved to London about 1623 and renounced the church.  Mr. Henry Jacob had established the first independent congregational church in England in 1616, apparently following Robinson's plan of organization at Leiden in Holland (which, of course, is where the Pilgrim Fathers had fled a few years earlier).  At this time, persecution seems not to have been too severe and the congregation apparently met more or less without fear in Union Street in Southwark, south of the Thames (a burial lot attached to this location seems to have been later known as Deadman's Place).  Subsequently, in 1624 Mr. Jacob emigrated to Virginia and, as a consequence Mr. Lothropp became his successor in London.   

The Borough House 1833, owned by Brewer Henry Thrale was located on the side of the first Independant Church in London, 1616. The address was Deadmans Place ,so called because of the pest-houses established there during the great plague, now known as Park Street in Southwark, London. Current Location

After the accession of King Charles I in 1625, official insistence of religious conformity steadily increased.  Accordingly, independent congregational meetings were necessarily held in secret to avoid trouble with royal and ecclesiastical authorities, in particular, Archbishop William Laud, who zealously desired to extinguish all nonconforming practices, which he called "heresy". Apparently, Lothropp's congregation worshipped under these conditions for at least eight years.  Indeed, it would seem that Laud tried for some time without success to locate the meeting place of the dissenters, but finally in late April of 1632, a group led by Tomlinson, Laud's warrant officer, raided a meeting at the house of Mr. Humphrey Barnet, a brewer's clerk, in Blackfriars and forty-two persons were seized, only eighteen escaping. A trial was held in the Court of High Commission, i.e., Star Chamber, in the Palace of Westminster and Lothropp and his followers were convicted. As a result, each defendant was reportedly sentenced to serve two years incarcerated in Newgate Prison, then known colloquially as "The Clink" and a place feared by even the most hardened criminals.

Sadly, during the time of John's imprisonment, Hannah Lothropp became seriously ill and it may be supposed that as a charitable act her husband was given permission by the bishop to visit his wife before her death. On this occasion, it is reported that he commended her to God in prayer, after which she soon died, leaving their family without care or funds. Moreover, it has been further reported (with, perhaps, some embellishment) that following his wife's death and when he was to return to prison, John himself or, as is more likely, some of his fellow congregants and friends, took all the Lothropp children dressed in their "Sunday best", presented them to Laud and inquired as to who was going to care for them.  Similarly, petitions were sent to the government requesting Rev. Lothropp's release due to family hardship, but these were rejected because as an influential nonconformist clergyman he was considered to be too socially and religiously dangerous to be set free, unless he would agree to leave England. To this it would seem he consented and, consequently, he was released on April 24th, 1634, with the understanding that he was on bail, that he was not to officiate or even to be present in any private meetings, and that he, along with some fellow prisoners, would expeditiously leave the country.  Even so, while making preparations to leave, Rev. Lothropp became more adamant that "idolatry, liturgy, and symbolic sacraments were more important in the Church of England than simple worship of the Lord".

Court of the Star Chamber

Lothropp was told that he would be pardoned upon acceptance of terms to leave England permanently with his family along with as many of his congregation members as he could take who would not accept the authority of the Church of England. Lathrop accepted the terms of the offer and left for Plymouth, Massachusetts. With his group, he sailed on the Griffin and arrived in Boston on September 18th 1634.  The record found on page 71 of Governor Winthrop's Journal, quotes John Lothropp, a freeman, rejoicing in finding a "church without a bishop. . .and a state without a king." Lothropp did not stay in Boston long. Within days, he and his group relocated to Scituate where they "joined in covenaunt together" along with nine others who preceded them to form the "church of Christ collected att Scituate." The Congregation at Scituate was not a success. Dissent on the issue of baptism as well as other unspecified grievances and the lack of good grazing land and fodder for their cattle caused the church in Scituate to split in 1638.

Lothropp petitioned Governor Thomas Prence in Plymouth for a "place for the transplanting of us, to the end that God might have more glory and wee more comfort."  Thus as Otis says "Mr. Lothropp and a large company arrived in Barnstable, 11 October 1639 O.S., bringing with them the crops which they had raised in Scituate."  There, within three years they had built homes for all the families and then Lothropp began construction on a larger, sturdier meeting house adjacent to Coggin's (or Cooper's) Pond, which was completed in 1644. This building, now part of the Sturgis Library in Barnstable, Massachusetts is one of John Lothrop's original homes and meeting houses, and is now also the oldest building housing a public library in the United States [17][18][19]

St. James Church Egerton, Kent

John Lothropp b. Dec 20th 1584 Etton, Yorkshire, England d. Nov 8th 1653 Barnstable, Plymouth Colony m. Oct 16th 1610, Hannah Howse who died in 1633 in London, England while John was in Prison. They had:
1. Thomas b. abt. Feb 1612/3 Eastwell, Kent, England d. bef. Aug 10th 1653 Barnstable, Plymouth Colony m. Dec 11th 1639 Sarah Learned Ewer, daughter of William Learned and widow of Thomas Ewer.
2. Jane b. abt. Sept 29th 1614 Egerton, Kent, England
3. Anne b. abt. May 1616 Egerton, Kent, England d. abt. April 1617 Egerton, Kent, England
4. John b. abt. Feb 1617/8 Egerton, Kent, England d. aft. 1653 England
5. Barbara b. abt. Oct 1919 Egerton, Kent, England
6. Samuel b. abt. 1621 Kent, England
7. Joseph b. abt. April 1624 in Eastwell, Kent, England
8. Benjamin b. abt. Sept 26th Eastwell, Kent, England
John married second Ann (not the daughter of William Hammond) bef. June 14th 1635. They had;
1. Barnabas b. abt. June 1636 in Scituate, Plymouth Colony
2. Unk. Daughter Lothrop d. July 30th 1638 Scituate, Plymouth Colony
3. Bathshua b. abt. Feb 1641/2 Barnstable, Plymouth Colony
4. Elizabeth b. about 1643 Barnstable, Plymouth Colony
5. John b. abt. May 1645 Barnstable, Plymouth Colony
6. Unk. Son. Jan 25th 1649/50

Robert Linnell’s History

Nothing is really known about Robert Linnell’s ancestry.  Linnell is a rare name concentrated in North-West Northamptonshire with a family history of being in the clergy and the trades.   It would be safe to assume Robert was born about 1596-1603 due to the fact he had probably just finished a BA in divinity in 1623.  Robert could have also received his Master’s degree while in London because he assumed the moniker of “Mr.” in a few documents in Plymouth Colony.  It is also assumed he was a wealthy gentleman, which could also be true.  Clergy were normally the younger sons of wealthier families at this time It has been assumed that Robert was born in 1584 but that was due to the fact that he was mistaken for the father of Sarah Learned born about 1607 who married, first Thomas Ewer [20][21] and secondly Thomas Lothropp, who was Robert’s nephew from his second marriage To Pennina Howes [19].  In Rachel Wynn’s book, it was implied Robert knew Kent, England, but there is no evidence to support that.  Robert was living in London in 1623 [8] and the Lothropp’s and Howse families moved to London from Kent before Robert married Pennina.  John Lothropp’s son Benjamin was baptized on Sept 24th 1626 while Robert was living in London [14].

The Linnell or Lynnell surname in the correlation of being connected to the publishers and stationers cannot be overlooked.  In London in about 1533, a certain John Lynnett was paid 32d for printing a “book” for the church of St Andrew Hubbard.  In the Transcripts of the Company of Stationers, Richarde Lynnell a free journeyman printer is recorded having three apprentices from 1561 to 1566, all from Northamptonshire.  (1) Thomas Breade son of John of Hulcote, Northamptonshire.  (2) Tymothe Ryder son of John of Weedon Bec, Northamptonshire.  (3) Henry Sharpe son of Rycharde of Towcester, Northamptonshire.  Richard might have had a son or grandson named Thomas that is Listed as a stationer in 1633.  A Thomas Lynnell of London became a freeman Stationer in London and apprenticed a John Rawlins 1n 1533.  Henry Sharpe whom apprenticed to Rycharde Linnell until 1570 was part of the Martin Marprelate scandal involving the printing of heretical protestant tracts.  Humphrey Newman a Cobbler in London was distributing the tracts while Henry Sharpe was the bookbinder.  A few people were executed because of these tracts and involved a minor Noble gentleman named Job Throckmorton from Hasely, Warwickshire and Sir Richard Knightly of Norton, Northamptonshire who also owned the lands in Snoscombe.  It is the Authors opinion that Robert comes from one of the Linnell families of Northamptonshire which could hopefully be proven by Y-DNA analysis.[SeeLunell/Linnell History]

Robert and Pennina likely boarded the ship “Castle” owned by William and Thomas Hatch of Scituate, Plymouth Colony in April of 1638 when it was docked in London on the River Thames. (The brothers were originally from Wye, Kent, England) The ship arrived in Boston in July of 1638 and carried the family of Thomas Hatch who were on their way to Scituate and to join his brother, William’s family.  No other Ships are recorded sailing from London to Boston in that year after this date. [24][25] In John Lothropp’s journal, is written “My Brother Robert Linnell and his wife having a letter of dismission from the church in London joyned to us Setemb. 16, 1638.” [25]  Robert was granted land in Sepiecan outside of Scituate (now Rochester) Dec of 1638, but the grant was rejected because his congregation decided to move to Barnstable.   

Robert Linnell b. let’s say 1596-1603 in England d. sometime aft. Jan 23rd, 1662 in Barnstable, Plymouth Colony and his first wife Susan b. abt. 1600 and died before 1633 in London, England had:
1. Susan b. abt. Dec 1623 in Eastcheape, London, England d. unk. Prob in London, England
2. David b. abt. 1627 in London, England d. Nov 14th, 1688 in Barnstable, Plymouth Colony
3. Hannah b. abt. 1619 in London, England d. aft. 1673 in Barnstable, Plymouth Colony
4. Mary b. abt. 1631 in London, England d. aft 1653 in Barnstable, Plymouth Colony
5. Abigail b. abt. 1866 in London, England d. aft 1663 in Barnstable, Plymouth Colony
Robert remarried before 1633, Penninah Howse in London, England. They had;
1. Shubael b. abt. 1634 in London, England d. aft 1665 in Barnstable, Plymouth Colony
2. Bethia b. Feb. 7th,1640 in Barnstable, Plymouth Colony d. March 26th, 1726 in Harwich, Barnstable, Massachusetts Colony.

Early Plymouth Colony, Scituate & Barnstable Records that describe the early life of the Linnell family

Sept 16th 1638 “My Brother Robert Linnell and his wife having a letter of dismission from the church in London joyned to us Setemb. 16, 1638” [25]

Jan 22nd 1639 “A grant of a plantacon called Seppekann, and the land therebout, for the seatinge of a township for a congregation there is made vnto…Robte Linnell, as commitees to dispose of such lands lying there about as shalbe limmitted and bounded vnto them, reserueing a pcell of 300 or 400 acrees for a farme, or to be disposed of as the government here shall thinke meete. [26 Vol. 1 pg. 108]

Feb 1st 1639 “Inhabitants of Scituate, took the oath of allegiance to the King, and fidelite to the colony.“… “Robte Linnell[26 Vol. 1 pg. 110]

June 4th 1639 “Robt Linnell” is sworn as a constable in Plymouth Colony in front of Governor Bradford. [26 Vol. 1 pg. 126]

1639 Freeman of Barnstable “Mr Robte Linnett” 22 men 5 have the moniker “Mr[26 Vol. 8 pgs. 176-177]

Dec 3rd 1639 At General Court before Gov. William Bradford “Robert Linnett, .. admitted freeman this Court, & Sworn accordingly[26 Vol. 1 pg. 137]

Oct 11th 1639 “when Mr Lothrop and members of his church in Scituate removed hither “to Barnstable at a place called “Mattacheese” by the Indians” [27]
March 3rd 1640 - That Thomas Lumbert was “allowed to keep victualing, or an ordinary, for the entertainment of strangers, and to draw w(l)ines in Barnstable” in 1639, indicates progress.  The first town-meeting of which mention is made, was had in relation to the division of lands.  An order was made “that no inhabitant within this plantation shall make sale of his house or any of his lands until he has offered the same to the proprietors; and in case the plantation buy it not, then he shall provide a purchaser whom the town shall approve;  and, if the town do not provide a chapman in two months, he may then sell it to whom he will.  List of Townsfolk …Robert Linnet[27]

The next town-meeting of which we find any record is in 1641, in relation to the laying out of lands. Mr. Thomas Lothrop and Bernard Lombard were appointed "measurers of land," and authorized " to layout all the lands that the several inhabitants are to have laid out, and to bound them with stakes." They were to have for this service Id. per acre for upland, and 2d. per acre for salt marshes.  It was further ordered " that the parties whose land is to be laid out, shall accompany “the surveyors. [27]

Robert Linnell’s holdings it is said to have been, “His houselot containing ten acres was bounded northerly by the harbor, easterly by the lot of Thomas Lumbard, southerly by the highway, and westerly by the homelots of William and John Casely. He also owned three acres of planting land in the Common Field, three acres of meadow at Sandy Neck nine at Scorton, a great lot containing sixty acres, and rights to commonage.[29]

Feb 17th 1640 - Birth “Bethia daughter of Robert Linnell[25]

Aug 1643 “The Names of all the Males that are able to beare Armes from xvj. Years old to 60 Yeares, within the seu’all Towneshipps.  * Barnstable Robte Linnett,… David Linnett[25]

Oct 18th 1643 - Thomas Howse will dated Oct 18th 1643, proved Dec 23rd 1644 “Thomas left £20 to his brother Samuel Howse, £10 to his sister Peninnah Linnell, and fifty shillings to each of their children.[33]

March 15th 1648 - Marriage “John Davis and Hannah Linnett marryed att Nocett by Mr. Prince  [25]

June 6th 1649 - At General Court held at Plymouth before Gov. William Bradford to nominate commissioners “Survayors of Hiewayes … Barnstable Thomas Lumbert, Mr. Lennit.[26 Vol. 2 pg. 139]

October 15th 1649 - Marriage “Richard Childe and Mary linnett marryed the 15th day of October by Mr. Collier at my Brother Linnett’s house.[25]

May 1650 “Joshuah Lumbert and Abigail Linnett marryed the latter end[31 pg. 46]

March 9th 1652 - Marriage “David Lynett and Hannah Shelley marryed by him[25]

June 3rd 1652 - Court Order “David Linnet and Hannah Shelley, for vncleane practises eich with other, are sentenced by the Court to bee both publickely whipt at Barnstable, where they liue.” [26 Vol. 3 pg. 11]

June 8th 1652 – Sentencing “David Linnell & Hannah Shelley beeing questioned by the church upon a publique ffame toutching carnall & uncleane carriages betwixt them tow, beeing in ye congregation confessed by them, they were both by the sentence & joynt consent of the church, pronounced to bee cutt off from that relation wch they hadd formerlye to the church, by virtue of their parents covenaunt, acted & done by ye church, May 30, 1652. —They both were for their ffaults punished with Scourges here in Bernestable by the Sentence of Magestracye Jun. 8, 1652[28]

Jan 23rd 1662-63 - Mr. Robert Linnel in his will dated 23rd January, 1662-3, gives to his wife Jemimah Linnel the use and improvement of his house and homelot so long as she remains a widow, and his furniture, a plow, a cart, and two cows and a calf forever.  Thomas Lothrop deposed to the will before Mr. Thomas Hinckley, Justice of the Peace, March 12th 1662-3, and in his testimony, he swears that the words “and a calf “were put into the will after the decease of Mr. Linnel on the 27th of Feb 1662-3. [30]

To his son David he gives his lot on the south side of the road containing four acres adjoining John Caseley's land, three acres of marsh at Sandy Neck, and his house and homelot, including the Swamp he bought of Thomas Lewes after the death or marriage of his wife.  To his daughter Abigail three acres of upland and meadow in the common-field on the north-westerly side of Mattakeese pond. To John Davis (who married his daughter Hannah) his two oxen, on condition that he provided his wife with wood, plowed her grounds, and mowed her meadow two years, if she remained a widow so long, if not, then to be free.  To his daughter Bethia one cow, “to have it when my wife will.” [30] The Home Lot, dwelling-house, and some articles of personal estate, were apprised by Thomas Lothrop and Thos. Lewis at 55,4,6 He owed Mr Thomas Clark 1,10 shillings and some other small debts. [30]
March 3rd 1662-3 Court Order -  Mr. Hinckley is appointed by the Court to adminnestor an oath to such as are to take theire oathes to the will and inventory of the estate of Mr Robert Linnell, deceased ; and that Josepth Laythorp and Nathaniell Bacon bee aded to the widdow Linnell to bee healpfull to her in seeing the debts payed either out of the whole or pte of the estate.” [26 Vol. 4 pg. 31]

June 5th 1665 Court Order - “In reference vnto the estate of Thomas Ewer, the Court haue appointed Thomas Laythorp and Shuball Linnitt to take his estate and adminnester theron, and to be gaurdians alsoe to the children.[26 Vol. 4 pg. 153]

October 29th 1669 Court Order - “In reference vnto the complaint of Penninnah Linnitt, widdow, against David Linnit, that hee hath possessed himselfe of her house and land giuen her by the will of her deceased husband, Robert Linnitt, and giueth her noe satisfaction for the same, the Court haue ordered, that if hee doe not giue her satisfaction about the same betwixt this and the next March Court, that then the Court will take course that hee shalbe disposessed therof.[26 Vol. 5 Pg. 28]

July 7th 1681  Court Order - “In reference vnto Hannah Linnett her light behauiour with Joseph Randall att Barnstable, the Court haue ordered, that shee appeer before Mr Barnabas Laythorp, to whom the case is refered, that incase shee pay, or cause to be payed, the sume of twenty fiue shillings, then shee is to be freed, or otherwise to be whipt.” [26 Vol. 6 pg. 71]


[1] John Bellamie, A Justification of the City Remonstrance and Its Vindication (London: Richard Cotes, 1646), 22–23. The records of St. Andrew Hubbard for this time period are no longer extant, making Bellamie’s tract the only surviving witness to Linnell’s first wife and the baptism of their daughter. Bellamie’s accuracy can be confirmed by the other baptism he mentioned in this tract—that of Bershuah, daughter of Daniel Ray—which does match surviving parish records (London Metropolitan Archives, Saint Saviour, Southwark, Registers, included in London, England, Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials, 1538–1812, online at Bellamie’s tract also provides the only contemporary witness that Daniel Ray was a member of the congregation eventually led by Lothrop. Ray appeared in the token books of St. Saviour Southwark as early as 1622 and as late as 1627 (William Ingram and Alan H. Nelson, The Token Books of St Saviour Southwark, online at tp:// An early Plymouth church history attests that, about 1629, “seuerall Godly persons, some whereof had bin of mr Laythorps Church in England,” moved to Plymouth Colony (William Bradford and Nathaniel Morton, “History of the Plymouth Church, 1620–1680,” in Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts: Collections, Vol. 22 [Boston: Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 1920], 64).
[2] Mike Hayes January 15, 2009 What is a Deacon? Junior Priest, Glorified Altar Boy or...?
[4] Parliamentary Papers: 1850-1908, Volume 71 (Parliament. House of Commons H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1904) Pg. 487
[5] Sidney Lee, Dictionary of National Biography Vol. XLVII Puckle-Reidfurd (Macmillian and Co., London, 1896) Pg. 269 Randall
[6] Sidney Lee, Dictionary of National Biography Vol. XLVII Puckle-Reidfurd (Macmillian and Co., London, 1896) Pg. 288 Ranew
[7] Sidney Lee, Dictionary of National Biography Vol. XXIX Inglis-John (Macmillian and Co., London, 1892) Pg. 117 Jacob
[8] Craig L. Dalley, Religious and Political Radicalism in London: The Family of Thomas Howse, with Massachusetts Connections, 1642–1665, NEHGR Winter 2016, Vol 170. Pgs. 26-44
[9] W.T. Whitley, Records of the Jacob-Lathorp-Jessey Church 1616 -1641 (Transactions of the Baptist Historical Society Vol 1 1909) Pg. 210
[10] Champlin Burrage, The Early English Dissenters in the Light of Recent Research (1550-1641): History and criticism (University Press, 1912) pg. 299
[10] Robert Charles Anderson, George F. Sanborn and Melinde Lutz Sanborn, The Great Migration, Immigrants to New England, 1634-1635, Vol. II, entry for Samuel Howse, pgs. 424-428
[11] Edward Winslow, The Mayflower: The Families, the Voyage, and the Founding of America Rebecca Fraser (St. Martin's Press, Nov 7, 2017) pg. 11
[12] CCed Clergy of the Church of England Database, , John (Johannes) House, CCEd Person ID: 41983 & John (Johnnes) Howse (Huwse) CCEd Person ID: 41954
[14] Clifford L. Stott, Lothrop and House entries in the parish registers of Eastwell, Kent, The American Genealogist Vol 70 (Oct 1995) pgs. 250-152
[15] Misc. records of Howse and Lothropp families from the NEHGR (Private) 25 pgs.
[16] CCed Clergy of the Church of England Database, , John Lothropp CCEd Person ID: 46215
[18] Dan R. McConnell, The Howes, Lothrops, and Linnells of Kent and London, England, and Scituate and Barnstable, Massachusetts, (Published by the Cape Cod Genealogical Society Bulletin, Fall 2007) 4 pgs.
[19] Robert Charles Anderson, George F. Sanborn and Melinde Lutz Sanborn, The Great Migration, Immigrants to New England, 1634-1635, Vol. IV, entry for John Lothrop, pgs. 345-351
[20] Robert Charles Anderson, George F. Sanborn and Melinde Lutz Sanborn, The Great Migration, Immigrants to New England, 1634-1635, Vol. II, entry for Thomas Ewer, pp. 479-483
[21] Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins, Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Vols. 1-3, entry for William Learned, pp. 1164-1166
[22] Rachel Linnell Wynn, The Descendants of Robert Linnell (Irvington, Rochester NY, 1985) pg. 1
[23] Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, Volume 4 William Phillimore Watts Phillimore, Sidney Joseph Madge (Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, and Company, Limited, Gloucestershire, 1890) pg. 132
[24] Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration, Immigrants to New England, 1634-1635, Volume III, G-H (2003), pg. 241 in William Hatch article, citing [Lechford 163-167]
[25] Amos Otis, Scituate and Barnstable Church Records Part 1, The New England Historical & Genealogical Register, Volume 9 (1855) pgs. 279-287
[26] Nathanial, B. Shurtleff, Records of the Colony of Plymouth Vols 1-13; (William White, Boston 1855-1861) Vol 1 pgs.  110,126,137 Vol 2 pg. 139 Vol 3 pg. 11, Vol 4 pgs. 31, 153, Vol 5 pg. 28, Vol 6 pgs. 71, 87 Vol 8 pgs. 46, 157, 176, 179, 183, 187, 193, 200  Vol 13 pgs. 267, 379
[27] Frederick Freeman, The Annals of the Thirteen Towns of Barnstable County Parnassus Imprints, 1862 - Barnstable County Mass.) pgs. 245-256
[28] Amos Otis, Scituate and Barnstable Church Records Part 2, The New England Historical & Genealogical Register, Volume 10 (1856) pg. 42
[29] Amos Otis, Genealogical Notes of Barnstable Families Vol II, (Barnstable, Mass., 1888) pg. 151
[31] Nathanial, B. Shurtleff, Records of the Colony of New Plymouth, in New England: Miscellaneous records [including Births, marriages, deaths and burials; Treasury accounts, and Lists of freemen and others] (William White, Boston 1857) pg. 46.
[32] Reports of Cases in the Courts of Star Chamber and High Commission, Volume 39 (England and Wales. Court of Star Chamber, Camden Society, 1886) pg. 924
[33] Prerogative Court of Canterbury Wills, 17 Rivers, PROB 11/192/174; Elizabeth French, “Genealogical Research in England: Howse,” Register 67 (1913):260–61.


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